## Triangular wave generator

Different wave generator circuit is used troubleshoot electronics circuit. We have already published different type of wave generator. Now, Here is a circuit of advanced triangular wave generator for generating triangular wave with maximum peak level (V_{MAX}) and minimum peak level (V_{MIN}) in order to overcome the limitation of changing frequency with changing frequency with change in the value of generated waves.

### Circuit descriptions of advanced triangle wave generator

The whole circuit of triangle wave generator is build around quad operational amplifier IC TL048 (IC_{2}) and analogue multiplexer IC CD4053. IC_{1} is separated as A_{1}, A_{2}, A_{3} and A_{4} functioning as differential amplifier, integrator, buffer amplifier and comparator respectively.

The two reference voltage is given from analogue multiplexer to differential amplifier A_{1}. The output voltage **V _{1} = -(V_{MAX }– V_{MIN})** from A

_{1}is given to A

_{2}for integration. When the integrated output of A

_{2}having positive slope it exceeds the level V

_{MAX}and the comparator output (output from A

_{4}) goes negative. Similarly, when the integrated output of A

_{2}having negative slope comparator output (output from A

_{4}) goes positive.

Formula for calculation time period of oscillation of triangle wave generator

At time t_{1}, output goes from the initial value V_{MIN} to final value V_{MAX}.

**V _{MAX} = V_{MIN} + (V_{1}/RC_{2}).t_{1}**

Where **R = VR _{3} + R_{5}**

Therefore,

**t _{1} = V_{MAX} – V_{MIN}.RC_{2}/V_{1}**

But the output of differential amplifier is Triangular wave generator

Therefore, **t _{1} = RC_{2}**

At time t_{2}, output goes from initial value V_{MAX} to final value V_{MIN}.

Therefore, **V _{MIN} = V_{MAX} – (V_{1}/RC_{2}).t_{2}**

Therefore, **t _{2} = (V_{MAX} – V_{MIN}).RC_{2}/2**

Again **V _{1} = (V_{MAX }– V_{MIN})**

Therefore, **t _{2} = RC_{2}**

From above calculation, time period of oscillation is

**T = t _{1} + t_{2} = 2RC_{2}**

and is independent of the peak value set. The oscillation range is 50 Hz to 5 KHz.

### PARTS LIST

**Resistors (all ¼-watt, ± 5% Carbon)**

R_{1}, R_{2}, R_{3}, R_{4} = 10 KΩ

R_{5}, R_{7}, R_{8}, R_{9}, R_{10}, R_{11} = 1 KΩ

R_{6} = 47 KΩ

VR_{1}, VR_{2} = 10 KΩ

VR_{3} = 100 KΩ

#### Capacitors

C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3} = 0.1 µF

#### Semiconductors

IC_{1} = CD4053 (analogue multiplexer IC)

IC_{2} (A_{1}, A_{2}, A_{3} A_{4}) = TL084 (quad operational amplifier)

D_{1} = 1N4148

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